Abstract: The theory of matriarchy still enjoys wide popularity, even among psychoanalysts. Following Freud’ ideas, they invoke the passage from matriarchy to patriarchy as a historical analogue to the individual psychosexual development. After a review of anthropological discussions, some hypotheses vis-a-vis this persistence are proposed: matriarchy is a secular cosmogonic myth, developed within the evolutionary paradigm; a fantasy of origin of mankind within the mother’s primacy constellation, both defensive formations against underlying anxieties constitutive of societal institution. Having recourse to Peirce’s and Green’s concept of thirdness, a critical approach of linearity is undertaken. Finally, a structural correlation between gynaecocracy and matriarchal theory is proposed.

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