Abstract: Guilt as a moral category is differ- rentiated from feelings of guilt as a psy- chological category. Psychoanalysts study and try to understand feelings of guilt. The author compares evolutionary and psychoanalytical concepts of the super-ego. In the analysis with an elderly woman with many traumatic events in her life history, different aspects of guilt and feelings of guilt are studied. Confusing the different levels of guilt and guilt feelings is mainly a sign of countertransferential involvement. Because of the persecutory flavour of guilt feelings it is proposed to formulate as an ultimate goal of analysis the recognition of one’s responsibility in contrast with feeling guilty.

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